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The preservation of mitochondrial function is of particular importance in neurons given the high energy requirements of action potential propagation and synaptic transmission. Indeed, disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control are linked to cellular pathology in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Here, we will discuss the role of ubiquitination by the E3 ligases: Parkin, MARCH5 and Mul1, and how they regulate mitochondrial homeostasis. Furthermore, given the role of Parkin and Mul1 in the formation of mitochondria-derived vesicles we give an overview of this area of mitochondrial homeostasis. We highlight how through the activity of these enzymes and MDV formation, multiple facets of mitochondrial biology can be regulated, ensuring the functionality of the mitochondrial network thus preserving neuronal health.Functional mitochondria are required for neuronal health.Ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins regulates many aspects of mitochondrial homeostasis.Defects in mitochondrial ubiquitination can lead to neurodegeneration.