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Investigations continue into the central neuronal circuitry involved in cardiovascular control, the activity of sympathetic efferents, cardiovascular responses, and experimental hypertension. Neurons within the ventrolateral medulla are integral to several reflex pathways. The activation of neurons within the A5 cell group can generate complex patterns of sympathetic and cardiovascular response. The type of respiratory modulation of a sympathetic neuron may be associated with its function. Opioid mechanisms within the central nervous system are important in cardiovascular responses to hemorrhage. The central actions of angiotensin II and atrial natriuretic peptide may blunt the baroreceptor reflex in spontaneously hypertensive rats.