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Experimental studies were carried out to investigate the neuroprotective effects of delta-sleep-inducing peptide in animals with cerebral ischemia induced by bilateral compression of both carotid arteries, and to compare the efficacy of this peptide with that of MK-801. These studies led to the conclusion that the peptide had pronounced anti-ischemic effects, which were evident within 24 h and consisted of reductions in the severity of postural abnormalities in rats with bilateral cerebral ischemia, along with a reduction in lethality. Comparison of the efficacies of peptide and MK-801 showed the peptide to have the greater neuroprotective effect. These results are regarded as providing an experimental basis for using the peptide as a therapeutic agent in patients with stroke.