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The role of a depressor factor, atrial natriuretic peptide, in the development of arterial hypertension in adolescents with pubertal hypothalamic syndrome was studied in 52 patients and 13 healthy males aged 13-24 years. The duration of disease was 2-11 years. Radioimmunological methods were used to measure plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, plasma renin activity, and serum aldosterone. Patients with borderline arterial hypertension were found to have a significant reduction in their atrial natriuretic peptide levels, and this correlated directly with the renin-aldosterone system, demonstrating insufficiency of the depressor system in patients with pubertal hypothalamic syndrome and the involvement of atrial natriuretic peptide in the development of arterial hypertension, along with disturbances in the functional relationship between atrial natriuretic peptide and the renin-aldosterone system.