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Single p.o. doses of manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O; 50 mg/kg) induced significant and reversible decreases in total activity in white rats, along with worsening of the acquisition of an avoidance reaction in response to unconditioned and conditioned stimuli, increases in the latent period of conditioned reflex activity, and a temporary worsening of the learning process. Chronic manganese poisoning (daily p.o. manganese chloride at 20 or 50 mg/kg for one month) led to significant impairment of learning processes in a multipath maze but had no significant effect on reproduction of previously acquired stereotypical behavior.