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The development and formation of the neuronal architectonics of organotypic structures of the sensorimotor cortex in rats aged 7-8 days were studied in roller cultures. Free-floating slices were cultured for 2-3 weeks. Serial paraffin sections of cultured tissue were stained with fast cresyl violet as described by Nissl. Initially planar sections of the cortex were found to change their configuration during the process of cultivation and were transformed into spherical structures, retaining the major histotypic features of cortical formations. Radially orientated pyramidal cells and fusiform neurons formed a cortical rudiment, not discriminated into layers, over the whole surface of the spherical tissue structures. In free-floating slices of the sensorimotor cortex of rats aged 7-8 days in roller cultivation, histogenetic processes continued, leading to the formation of histotypic cortical structures similar to the phylogenetically more ancient allocortical formations of the forebrain.