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The nuclei of the dorsal thalamus and reticular nucleus in humans were found to contain separated NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-positive neurons. Staining of NADPH-d-positive neurons and all their processes, along with previous studies of neurons in the nuclei of the dorsal thalamus based on the Golgi method, allowed the type of these cells to be identified as sparsely branched. The main, densely branched, efferent neurons did not contain NADPH-d. NADPH-d-positive neurons included reticular cells and cells of one of the types of short-axon interneurons. The internal capsule contained large numbers of NADPH-d-positive reticular neurons. NADPH-d-positive neurons were found in contact with vessels. Thus, NADPH-d-positive cells of the dorsal thalamus, reticular nucleus, and internal capsule were evolutionarily more ancient and less structurally complex cells.