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The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young schoolchildren in Nefteyugansk (Khanty-Mansiiskii Autonomous Region) was found to be 8%, with rates of 13% amongst boys and 3% amongst girls. Clinical investigation of a cohort of 122 children aged 6-11 years identified risk factors for the formation of ADHD as perinatal CNS injuries, inherited predisposition, and unfavorable social-psychological influences. Neuropsychological, neurophysiological (electroencephalography), and biochemical studies identified minor neurological abnormalities, some characteristic features of the motor and emotional spheres, and changes in higher mental functions. In addition, biochemical changes consisting of decreases in plasma and erythrocyte magnesium levels and decreases in Mg2+-ATPase activity were identified. Treatment with MAGNE-B6 allowed correction of many of these changes.