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The origination of the diagnosis “post-traumatic stress disorder” (PTSD) is discussed in relation to its historical and diagnostic aspects. The different criteria for PTSD are analyzed in accordance with the ICD-10 and DSM (from DSM-III to DSM-IV-TR) systems. Attention is drawn to the diagnostic concept “acute stress disorder” (ASD) and its place in the dynamics of PTSD: ASD, acute PTSD, chronic PTSD. Supporting the view that PTSD exists as an individual nosological entity, the authors note significant differences in the clinical analysis of the psychopathological phenomena making up PTSD by different authors.