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Studies were performed in three Russian centers (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nizhnii Novgorod). The cohort consisted of 110 patients whose mental state corresponded to the concept of “mild cognitive impairment” (MCI). Patient status was assessed using widely accepted scales (MMSE, GDS, CDR, etc.) and a battery of neuropsychological tests. ApoE genotypes were also identified. Patients were divided into two comparable groups depending on treatment: 55 patients received cerebrolysin and 55 received Cavinton. The data provided evidence that treatment with cerebrolysin was more effective than treatment with Cavinton in terms of slowing the progression of cognitive deficit and delaying the time at which the patients qualified for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Cerebrolysin was more effective in patients with MCI and the ApoE4+ genotype, i.e., patients in the high risk group for Alzheimer's disease. Adverse events were rare in both groups.