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The object of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical usefulness of the biochemical markers for brain damage. Biochemical markers for brain damage are important in making decisions about a patient's suitability for surgical intervention or in limiting the degree of medical support needed. The literature covering the following biochemical markers is reviewed: S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme-BB, myelin basic protein in head injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and focal and global ischemic stroke. Recently, these biochemical markers for brain damages have gained increase attention, both with respect to the prognostic value of clinical outcome and the quantification of the severity of the lesion.