Endovascular Recanalization with Balloon Angioplasty and Stenting of an Occluded Occipital Sinus for Treatment of Intracranial Venous Hypertension: Technical Case Report

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE:

Dural sinus thrombosis can lead to intracranial venous hypertension and can be complicated by intracranial hemorrhage. We present a case report of a patient who underwent endovascular recanalization and stenting of a thrombosed occipital sinus.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION:

A 13-year-old patient with a history of chronic sinus thrombosis refractory to anticoagulant therapy presented with acute onset of aphasia and hemiparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed hydrocephalus and cerebral edema. Angiography delineated multiple dural arteriovenous fistulae and persistent occlusion of the posterior sagittal, occipital, and bilateral transverse dural sinuses with retrograde cortical venous drainage.

INTERVENTION:

After embolization of the dural arteriovenous fistulae, a transvenous approach was used to recanalize and perform balloon angioplasty of the right internal jugular vein and the occipital and left transverse sinuses, resulting in subsequent clinical improvement. The patient's condition deteriorated 3 days later with reocclusion of both balloon-dilated sinuses. Repeat angioplasty and then deployment of an endovascular stent in the occipital sinus were performed, and reestablishment of venous outflow was achieved, resulting in a decrease of intracranial venous pressure from 41 to 14 mm Hg and neurological improvement. At the 3-month follow-up examination, the stented occipital sinus remained patent and served as the only conduit for extracranial venous outflow; the patient remained neurologically intact at the 12-month follow-up examination.

CONCLUSION:

This is the first report of mechanical recanalization, balloon angioplasty, and stent deployment in the occipital sinus to provide sustained venous outflow for the treatment of venous hypertension with retrograde cortical venous drainage in a patient with dural pansinus thrombosis refractory to anticoagulant therapy.

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