CEREBRAL ENDOVASCULAR NEUROSURGERY has evolved rapidly in the past decade through advances in tools and techniques and as a result of the thrust toward evidence-based medicine. More patients with diseases traditionally treated via microsurgical approaches can now be treated with techniques that focus on endoluminal reconstruction. With the introduction of intracranial clot retrievers and appropriately sized stents, stroke care is being slowly revolutionized for those patients with salvageable brain tissue at the time of admission to the hospital. In this article, the recent history, current state, and possible future of cerebral endovascular neurosurgery are reviewed for the following diseases: stroke, intracranial atherosclerotic disease, brachiocephalic occlusive disease, cerebral aneurysms, central nervous system vascular malformations, and brain tumors. New concepts and applications for endovascular treatment of epilepsy and multiple sclerosis are mentioned. The potential for nanotechnology in this field and the future endovascular suite are envisioned.