Epilepsy Surgery of the Temporal Lobe in Pediatric Population: A Retrospective Analysis

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is still some reluctance to refer pediatric patients for epilepsy surgery, despite evidence of success in retrospective series.

OBJECTIVE:

To describe surgical experience and long-term outcome in pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) at a single institution.

METHODS:

Retrospective review of pediatric (<18-years-old) TLE patients who underwent surgery between November 1996 and December 2006 at Cleveland Clinic Epilepsy Center. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to assess outcome predictors.

RESULTS:

One hundred thirty pediatric patients met study criteria. Mean time between seizure onset and surgery was 6.3 years. Invasive evaluation was used in 32 patients (24.5%). Hippocampal sclerosis was present in 70 patients (53.8%), either alone or associated in dual pathology. The complication rate was 7%. The seizure-freedom rates at 1, 2, 5, and 12 years were 76%, 72%, 54%, and 41%, respectively (Kaplan-Meier). With the use of the Engel outcome classification, 98 (75.3%) patients were class I, 11 (8.5%) class II, 9 (7%) class III, and 12 (9.2%) were class IV at last follow-up. Only 4 (3.1%) patients underwent reoperations. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were discontinued in 36 patients (28.3%) in a mean period of 18 months (SD ±17 months; range, 6-102 months). Although left-sided resection, lower number of preoperative AED trials (≤4), and tumor pathology correlated with favorable seizure outcomes, extensive surgical resection remained the only significant outcome predictor after multivariate analysis (P = .007; HR = 0.13 [95% confidence interval 0.007-0.64]).

CONCLUSION:

Careful selection of surgical candidates by multidisciplinary evaluations is required. Long-term seizure control is achieved successfully with acceptable low complication rates.

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