Manganese exposure facilitates microglial JAK2-STAT3 signaling and consequent secretion of TNF-a and IL-1β to promote neuronal death

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HighlightsMn exposure induced TNF-α and IL-1β secretion in HAPI microglia.JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway was activated by Mn in HAPI microglia.TNF-α and IL-1βsecreted by HAPI microglia participated in the apoptosis of PC cells.Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure can lead to neuroinflammation and neurological deficit, which resemble idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). However, the precise mechanisms underlying Mn exposure-induced neurotoxicity remain incompletely understood. Microglia can become hyperactivated and plays a vital role in neuroinflammation and consequent neurodegeneration in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. In the present study, we found that HAPI microglial cells exhibited increased secretion of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β following Mn exposure in dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, we showed that Mn exposure could trigger the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in microglia. Notably, Mn-induced secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly attenuated by the treatment of JAK2 inhibitor. Finally, through incubating PC12 neuronal cells with Mn-treated microglial conditioned medium, we demonstrated that Mn-induced secretion of microglial TNF-α and IL-1β facilitated neuronal apoptosis. Thus, we speculate that Mn exposure might trigger JAK2-STAT3 signal pathway in microglia, leading to resultant neuroinflammation and neuronal loss.

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