Insect resistance mechanisms against pesticides lead to the development and the search of new pesticide combinations in order to delay the resistance. The combination of neonicotinoids with pyrethroids was currently proposed but the mode of action of these compounds at synaptic and extrasynaptic levels needs to be further explored. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the combination of two insecticides, permethrin and dinotefuran, on cockroach cholinergic synaptic transmission and on isolated cell bodies. We first found that combination of 5 μM permethrin and dinotefuran enhances depolarization of the sixth abdominal ganglion compared to dinotefuran alone, without an inhibition of the spontaneous activity. However, a pretreatment with 1 μM dinotefuran or permethrin before bath application of the mixture inhibits the ganglionic depolarization. Compared to permethrin, 1 μM dinotefuran induces a persistent enhancement of spontaneous activity. Interestingly, at extrasynaptic level, using dorsal unpaired median neurons and Kenyon cells, we found that combination of both 1 μM dinotefuran and permethrin resulted in an increase of the mixture-induced current amplitudes. Pretreatment with 1 μM dinotefuran strongly decreases the currents whereas permethrin induces a time-dependent inhibition. These data demonstrate that the combination of dinotefuran and permethrin enhances the effect of dinotefuran.