Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is caused by the expansion of translated CAG repeat in the TATA box binding protein (TBP) gene encoding a long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the TBP protein, which leads to intracellular accumulation of aggregated TBP and cell death. The molecular chaperones act in preventing protein aggregation to ameliorate downstream harmful events. In this study, we used Tet-On cells with inducible SCA17 TBP/Q79-GFP expression to test five in-house NC009 indole compounds for neuroprotection. We found that both aggregation and polyQ-induced reactive oxygen species can be significantly prohibited by the tested NC009 compounds in Tet-On TBP/Q79 293 cells. Among the five indole compounds, NC009–1 up-regulated expression of heat shock protein family B (small) member 1 (HSPB1) chaperone to reduce polyQ aggregation and promote neurite outgrowth in neuronal differentiated TBP/Q79 SH-SY5Y cells. The increased HSPB1 thus ameliorated the increased BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID), cytochrome c (CYCS) release, and caspase 3 (CASP3) activation which result in apoptosis. Knock down of HSPB1 attenuated the effects of NC009–1 on TBP/Q79 SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting that HSPB1 might be one of the major pathways involved for NC009–1 effects. NC009–1 further reduced polyQ aggregation in Purkinje cells and ameliorated behavioral deficits in SCA17 TBP/Q109 transgenic mice. Our results suggest that NC009–1has a neuroprotective effect on SCA17 cell and mouse models to support its therapeutic potential in SCA17 treatment.