Outcomes of developmental exposure to total particulate matter from cigarette smoke in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

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Abstract

The effects of prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke remain a subject of major interest, especially as it relates to neural development and adverse behavioral outcomes. Several studies have investigated the developmental toxicity of cigarette smoke components in a zebrafish model, showing that developmental exposure to total particulate matter (TPM; particulate phase of cigarette smoke) leads to adverse physiological aberrations and locomotor hyperactivity. Thus, the current study examines whether developmental TPM exposure of zebrafish embryos/larvae (F0) leads to physiological and behavioral alterations, and whether adverse effects are observed in adult fish and the next generation (F1; i.e. F0 offspring). We also examine whether behavioral effects are associated with changes in neural development, stress response, neurotransmitters, and bioenergetics. We demonstrate that TPM exposure during F0 development increased the incidence of deformities in F0 larvae, but F1 larvae did not exhibit any deformities. TPM exposure also resulted in swimming hyperactivity in F0 larvae and several behavioral changes were noted in F0 fish when they grew into adulthood. These behavioral changes were generally not associated with changes in markers of neural development in larvae, stress response in F0 adults, and concentration of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, dopamine, and serotonin) in F0 adult brain. There were also no changes in F0 or F1 embryonic oxygen consumption rate (OCR; marker of bioenergetics and mitochondrial health); however, the OCR in the brain of F0 males was reduced with TPM. We conclude that developmental exposure to TPM affects larval physiology and induces hyperactive swimming behavior, but these effects do not persist in F1 larvae. Moreover, developmental TPM exposure leads to long-lasting sex-specific behavioral outcomes in the F0 adult fish.

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