Numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as aberrantly expressed in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, limited knowledge is available concerning the roles of dysregulated lncRNAs and the underlying molecular regulatory mechanism in the pathological process of PD. In this study, we found that lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) and seven in absentia homolog 1 (SIAH1) were upregulated, but microRNA-15b-5p (miR-15b-5p) was downregulated in SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with MPP+, as well as in MPTP-induced mouse model of PD. Overexpression of SIAH1 enhanced cellular toxicity of α-synuclein in SH-SY5Y cells, as indicated by the reduction of cell viability and elevation of LDH release. The percentage of α-synuclein aggregate-positive cells and the number of α-synuclein aggregates per cell were increased in SH-SY5Y cells transfected with pcDNA-SIAH1, while decreased after transfection with short interfering RNA specific for SIAH1 (si-SIAH1). Bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assay revealed that SIAH1 was a direct target of miR-15b-5p. We also found that SNHG1 could directly bind to miR-15-5p and repress miR-15-5p expression. Upregulation of miR-15b-5p alleviated α-synuclein aggregation and apoptosis by targeting SIAH1 in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing α-synuclein. Overexpression of SNHG1 enhanced, whereas SNHG1 knockdown inhibited α-synuclein aggregation and α-synuclein-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the neuroprotective effect of si-SNHG1 was abrogated by downregulation of miR-15b-5p. In summary, our data suggest that SNHG1, as a pathogenic factor, promotes α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity by targeting the miR-15b-5p/SIAH1 axis, contributing to a better understanding of the mechanisms of Lewy body formation and loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD.