Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the most serious complication of sterility treatment. It is characterised by ovarian enlargement, ascites, electrolyte disturbance, hypovolaemia and haemoconcentration. A case of ischaemic stroke due to right middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in a young female with OHSS after pharmacological treatment of sterility is reported. Left central hemiparesis occurred suddenly within a few days after the embryo transfer. Magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-weighted images showed infarction in the right basal ganglia and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed the occlusion of the M1 segment of the right MCA. The haemodilution and the anticoagulation therapy were effective. Twenty-four hours after the stroke onset, MRA showed MCA recanalisation. The neurological deficit resolved completely within 3 months. The patient delivered 2 healthy infants at term. This case emphasises that the recent advent of ovulation induction and reproductive techniques is a newly recognised cause of cerebral stroke in otherwise healthy females.