Hypervitaminosis A in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Patients Requiring Renal Replacement Therapy

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Background:Chronic renal failure patients have been known to develop vitamin A toxicity, but a descriptive study of hypervitaminosis A in patients with acute renal failure (ARF) has not yet been published. The authors observed hypervitaminosis A in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients.Methods:All HSCT patients admitted between January 2001 and May 2006 who experienced ARF, received renal replacement therapy (RRT), and had a vitamin A level drawn were included in this retrospective, descriptive study. Molar ratios of vitamin A and retinol-binding protein (RBP) were calculated to more accurately assess vitamin A status. Nineteen patients met the criteria for this study.Results:At initial testing (generally between days 6 and 10 after initiation of RRT), 17 of the 19 patients had abnormally elevated vitamin A levels for their age. Molar ratios of vitamin A to RBP were elevated in 6 patients at initial testing. Prescribed vitamin A intake information (parenteral and enteral) was available for most patients; all but 3 had an average daily intake greater than 2000 IU/kg over the 30 days prior to RRT initiation. Many patients had symptoms possibly related to vitamin A toxicity, although interpretation of hair, skin, and liver abnormalities are difficult to ascertain in HSCT patients. Seven patients had other findings that may have been associated with vitamin A toxicity.Conclusion:Children undergoing HSCT who receive nutrition support (predominantly parenteral nutrition), experience ARF, and require RRT are at risk for hypervitaminosis A and toxicity. (Nutr Clin Pract. 2008;23:621–629)

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