Changes to the Intestinal Microbiome With Parenteral Nutrition: Review of a Murine Model and Potential Clinical Implications

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Abstract

Parenteral nutrition (PN) dependence, while life sustaining, carries a significant risk of septic complications associated with epithelial barrier dysfunction and translocation of gut-derived microbiota. Increasing evidence suggests that PN-associated changes in the intestinal microbiota play a central role in the breakdown of the intestinal epithelial barrier. This review outlines the clinical and experimental evidence of epithelial barrier dysfunction with PN, the role of gut inflammatory dysregulation in driving this process, and the role of the intestinal microbiome in modulating inflammation in the gut and systemically. The article summarizes the most current work of our laboratory and others and describes many of the laboratory findings behind our current understanding of the PN enteral environment. Understanding the interaction between nutrient delivery, the intestinal microbiome, and PN-associated complications may lead to the development of novel therapies to enhance safety and quality of life for patients requiring PN. (Nutr Clin Pract. 2015;30:798–806)

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