The literature indicates that pediatric malnutrition is more common than the number of times it is actually diagnosed. A new pediatric malnutrition definition is now available with criteria to make the diagnosis. If pediatric malnutrition is present, it should be diagnosed for financial, educational, and research purposes as well as the effects on patient development and mortality. These reasons extend beyond the health of an individual patient to potential impacts on society as a whole. When all of these reasons are examined and added, making the diagnosis of pediatric malnutrition becomes an obligation of the pediatric caregiver.