With scientific advances allowing for the safe delivery of parenteral and enteral nutrition in the home setting, challenges have risen with determining how this will be financially feasible for patients. In the United States, the government is one of the major payers for home parenteral and enteral nutrition (HPEN). Thus, it is important for nutrition providers to have an understanding of the Medicare criteria that must be met in order for these services to be covered. It can be difficult for clinicians to sift through these requirements and decipher for whom and when HPEN is covered. As our nutrition science knowledge and delivery continue to grow and evolve, potential barriers to this coverage may arise. This article provides background on those currently on HPEN in the United States, the current Medicare HPEN coverage criteria, and challenges we may face in the future.