Interaction Between Parenting and Neighborhood Quality on the Risk of Adolescent Regular Smoking

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To conduct the first study to examine potential interaction between parenting style and neighborhood quality on the risk of adolescent regular smoking.


We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents (n = 1,213 pairs of adolescents and their parents) who participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics during 2002–2003. Regular smoking behavior and parental monitoring level were reported by adolescents. Parenting style (i.e., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) was defined by cross-classifying self-reported parental warmth and control. Based on parents’ perceived neighborhood quality regarding raising children, neighborhoods were identified as either higher quality or lower quality.


Adolescents in lower-quality neighborhoods were more likely to be regular smokers (13.7% vs. 8.5%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.02–3.65) than those in higher-quality neighborhoods. In lower-quality neighborhoods, adolescents of authoritarian parents (16.9%; AOR = 10.97, 95% CI = 3.36–35.84) were more likely and those of uninvolved parents (20.3%; AOR = 3.47, 95% CI = 0.91–13.17) were marginally more likely to be regular smokers than those of authoritative parents (4.3%). However, among adolescents in higher-quality neighborhoods, parenting style was independent of the risk of regular smoking. There was marginally significant interaction between authoritarian parenting style and neighborhood quality. Parental monitoring was associated with reduced risk of adolescent smoking, regardless of neighborhood quality. There was no interaction between parental monitoring and neighborhood quality.


Authoritative parenting is associated with reduced risk of adolescent regular smoking in lower-quality neighborhoods but not in higher-quality neighborhoods. Authoritative parenting style and parental monitoring may buffer adverse influences of low-quality neighborhood.

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