Combinations of CYP2A6*4 and Glutathione S-Transferases Gene Polymorphisms Modify the Association Between Maternal Secondhand Smoke Exposure During Pregnancy and Small-for-Gestational-Age

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Abstract

Introduction:

Risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth varied considerably in women exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) during pregnancy. We examined whether this variation was explained by mothers’ one Phase I (CYP2A6*4, activation of tobacco toxics) and two Phase II (GSTM1 and GSTT1, detoxification) metabolic genotypes.

Methods:

We enrolled 468 Chinese pregnant women (115 delivering SGA and 353 delivering non-SGA newborns) shortly before delivery. SHS exposure during pregnancy was defined as self-reported daily exposure time being more than 0 minute. We fitted multivariable logistic regression models to examine whether CYP2A6*4, GSTM1, and GSTT1 gene polymorphsims and their combinations modified the association between SHS exposure and SGA.

Results:

In the total sample, more mothers of SGA newborns were exposed to SHS during pregnancy than mothers of non-SGA newborns (38.3% vs. 31.4%). CYP2A6*4, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes alone could not modify the association between SHS exposure and SGA. The combination of CYP2A6*4 and GSTT1 high-risk genotypes (CYP2A6*1/*1 and GSTT1-absent [high-risk] vs. other combinations as a whole [low-risk]) significantly (P value, .045) modified the association between SHS exposure and SGA. Among mothers with high-risk genotypes, SHS during pregnancy was significantly associated with SGA (confounder-adjusted odds ratio, 2.31 [95% confidence interval, 1.20–4.42]). Among mothers with low-risk genotypes, however, SHS exposure during pregnancy was not associated with SGA (1.14 [0.64–2.04]).

Conclusions:

Chinese pregnant women with the combination of CYP2A6*1/*1 and GSTT1-absent genotypes are at particularly high-risk of SHS-related SGA.

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