The Effects of Individualized Gastric Electrical Stimulation on Food Craving and Gastrointestinal Peptides in Dogs

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Using an adjustable stimulator with a wide range of stimulation parameters, the aims of this study were 1) to investigate the effects of long-term gastric electrical stimulation (GES) on appetite and differential food cravings for three different foods and 2) to investigate the effects of GES on plasma gastrointestinal peptide concentrations.


The study was performed in eight Beagle dogs implanted with one pair of serosal electrodes. They were followed during GES and sham GES sessions in a crossover design. GES was conducted using a series of individualized parameters. Food intake and food cravings were observed to evaluate the effects of long-term GES. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal peptides.


Dogs on GES for three months ate significantly less food than those on sham GES for three months (p < 0.05). A significant change in food cravings was induced by GES. Dogs with GES ate significantly less high-fat food. However, there was no significant difference in consumption of high-carbohydrate food or balanced food between the periods of GES and sham GES. The plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 did not differ significantly between the periods of GES and sham GES.


Food intake and food craving were changed significantly by adjustable GES. GES may be used for treating obesity by changing food preferences. Further clinical studies are necessary to highlight the effect of adjustable GES on eating behavior.

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