This review deals with the questions related to the composition of ion channels in the membranes of neurons belonging to the nociceptive system; special attention is focused on channels belonging to the TRP family.The factors (in particular, genetically determined) influencing the activity of these channels are discussed. The roles of certain enzymes (protein kinases, phospholipases, etc.) in modulation of the functioning of channel structures typical of nociceptive neurons are reviewed. The roles of calcium transmembrane currents and the state of cellular calcium-controlling compartments in transmission of nociceptive signals are also discussed. Special attention is paid to long-lasting modulatory changes in the activity of different ion channels responsible for the development of stable shifts of sensitive abilities of the nociceptive system (hyperalgesia, hypoalgesia, and allodynia) typical of certain neurological disorders.