The results from this study showed that the thresholds of brainstem auditory-evoked potentials peak following 10 successive days of intramuscular injection of Roman chickens with kanamycin, starting 3 days after birth. Fluorescence immunohistochemistry analysis revealed few ganglion cells positively labeled for Ephrin A2 in the cochlea of experimental chickens from 2 days before until 7 days after the last kanamycin injection. The number of Ephrin A2-positive ganglion cell bodies was increased at 15 days after the last injection and was similar to that in normal chickens at 30 days following the cessation of kanamycin treatment. These experimental findings indicate that Ephrin A2 protein expression in the acoustic ganglia is synchronized with the connection damage and regeneration of cochlear hair cells after kanamycin exposure. Ephrin A2 may play an important role in the regeneration and plasticity of cochlear hair cells in the chick cochlea following kanamycin ototoxicity.