We sought to investigate the correlation between the -455G/A and -148C/T polymorphisms of the β-fibrinogen gene and plasma fibrinogen levels in patients with cerebral infarction and in healthy subjects among the Xinjiang Uygur and Han Chinese populations, by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme digestion analysis. Results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in the distributions of the -455G/A genotype and allele frequency between the Uygurs and the Han. Plasma fibrinogen levels in cerebral infarction patients among the Uygurs and the Han were higher than those among healthy subjects. In particular, the frequencies of the -455G/A AA and -148C/T TT genotypes were significantly higher than in healthy subjects. Individuals carrying the A or T allele had a higher incidence of cerebral infarction compared with those carrying the G or C allele. Our experimental findings indicate that the -148C/T and -455G/A polymorphisms are associated with cerebral infarction in Xinjiang Uygur and Han Chinese subjects. The susceptibility-conferring alleles are -148T and -455A, and the susceptibility-conferring genotype is -455G/A + AA.