Brilliant blue G attenuates lipopolysaccharide-mediated microglial activation and inflammation**☆

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Previous studies have confirmed that oxidized adenosine triphosphate, a P2X7 receptor antagonist, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-mediated microglial activation and inflammatory expression following neuronal damage in rat brain. NaCl and temperature may affect the potency of oxidized adenosine triphosphate. Brilliant blue G is a derivative of a widely used food additive and has little toxicity. This study explored the effects of brilliant blue G, a selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, on microglial activation and inflammation. Results demonstrated that brilliant blue G inhibited the release of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 in BV2 cells. Immunofluorescence displayed that brilliant blue G could suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation. This study used RNA interference to block P2X7 receptor expression and found that small interfering RNA also suppressed the release of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 in BV2 cells. These results suggested that downregulation of the P2X7 receptor by brilliant blue G was involved in the inhibition of microglial activation and inflammation.

Research Highlights

(1) This study established the relative specificity of P2X7 receptor expression on microglia from murine brain tissue, providing evidence for the selective regulation of microglia via this receptor.

Research Highlights

(2) RNA interference and brilliant blue G intervention could inhibit microglial activation and inflammatory reactions by regulating the P2X7 receptor, and provided experimental evidence of a novel way for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory-mediated neurodegenerative disease.

Research Highlights

(3) Brilliant blue G is characterized by low toxicity and high selectivity, and can be used as an appropriate drug for blocking microglia-mediated inflammation and degeneration.

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