Neuroacanthocytosis is an autosomal recessive or dominant inherited disease characterized by widespread, non-specific nervous system symptoms, or spiculated “acanthocytic” red blood cells. The clinical manifestations typically involve chorea and dystonia, or a range of other movement disorders. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms may also be present. The two core neuroacanthocytosis syndromes, in which acanthocytosis is atypical, are autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome. Acanthocytes are found in a smaller proportion of patients with Huntington's disease-like 2 and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Because the clinical manifestations are diverse and complicated, in this review we present features of inheritance, age of onset, neuroimaging and laboratory findings, as well as the spectrum of central and peripheral neurological abnormalities and extraneuronal involvement to help distinguish the four specific syndromes.Research Highlights
Features of inheritance, age of onset, neuroimaging, laboratory findings, and the spectrum of central and peripheral neurological abnormalities and extraneuronal involvement of neuroacanthocytosis are reviewed to help guide research and instruct clinical diagnosis.