Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis From a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in India

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Abstract

Objective:

The prognosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) may be dependent on underlying causes and magnetic resonance imaging findings. We report the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic spectrum, and outcome of consecutive patients with CVST.

Methods:

Consecutive patients with CVST over the last 15 years were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, and laboratory tests as per fixed protocol. The diagnosis of CVST was based on MR venography. The magnetic resonance imaging findings and the sinuses involved were noted. The patients were treated with low–molecular-weight heparin or unfractionated heparin for 14 days, followed by oral anticoagulation. Hospital mortality and 3-month outcome (good or poor) were recorded and correlated with various clinical and laboratory parameters.

Results:

There were 86 patients whose median age was 30 (6 to 76) years; 47 of them were females. Headache was present in 91.9%, vomiting in 68.6%, focal weakness in 53.5%, seizure in 51.2%, and altered sensorium in 53.5%. Female-specific etiology was present in 34%, prothrombotic condition in 62.8%, infections in 19.8%, and malignancy in 2.8%; no cause could be established in 25.6% of patients. Hyperhomocystinemia was present in 45.9% of patients. Five patients died in the unfractionated heparin group. At 3 months, 77 patients were followed up, of whom 68 had complete, 3 had partial, and 6 had poor recovery. The 3-month outcome was related to Glasgow Coma Scale score and type of heparin used.

Conclusions:

In our study multiple prothrombotic conditions were common, and low–molecular-weight heparin reduces mortality and results in good outcome.

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