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Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare primary central nervous system tumor which frequently harbors mutations in BRAF. Anaplastic PXA follow a more aggressive course than their nonanaplastic counterparts. We present the case of an anaplastic PXA initially treated with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. After progression of disease the MEK inhibitor trametinib was added to the regimen leading to radiographic improvement. The rationale for combined BRAF and MEK inhibition in PXA is reviewed.