This article has been double-blind peer reviewed
In this article…
Pre- and full-term neonates and infants in their first year of life are potentially exposed to painful medical procedures, but their pain cannot be managed in the same manner as that of older children or adults. This article describes the non-pharmacological strategies that can be used to manage procedural pain in neonates and infants, explores the physiological mechanisms underpinning their pain-relieving effects, and sums up the evidence regarding their use. This is the second part of a three-part series on managing paediatric pain.