Heart failure 3: managing frailty in patients with heart failure

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This article has been double-blind peer reviewedIn this article…Conceptual models and assessment tools for frailtyOverlap between frailty and heart failureHow to manage frailty co-existing with heart failureFrailty is a state of reduced physiological reserve leading to heightened vulnerability. It is highly prevalent in heart failure and patients with both conditions will have worse outcomes and prognosis. The interplay between these two conditions is complex due to an overlap in underlying mechanisms and symptoms. Assessing frailty should be part of routine care, as it helps stratify patients and supports decision-making. This article, the third in a three-part series, covers the management of frailty in patients with heart failure. Part one describes its pathophysiology, aetiology, clinical presentation and diagnostic features, while part two covers management, treatment options and the crucial role of nurses in supporting and educating patients.

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