Effects of Neuroinflammation on Neural Stem Cells

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Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) are present in different locations in the central nervous system. In the subgranular zone (SGZ) there is a constant generation of new neurons under normal conditions. New neurons are also formed from the subventricular zone (SVZ) NSCs, and they migrate anteriorly as neuroblast to the olfactory bulb in rodents, whereas in humans migration is directed toward striatum. Most CNS injuries elicit proliferation and migration of the NSCs toward the injury site, indicating the activation of a regenerative response. However, regeneration from NSC is incomplete, and this could be due to detrimental cues encountered during inflammation. Different CNS diseases and trauma cause activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses that influence the NSCs. Furthermore, NSCs in the brain react differently to inflammatory cues than their counterparts in the spinal cord. In this review, we have summarized the effects of inflammation on NSCs in relation to their origin and briefly described the NSC activity during different neurological diseases or experimental models.

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