To examine if the application of Orem’s self-care model could improve self-care knowledge, attitudes, practices, and respiratory conditions of trauma patients with chest tubes, a quasi-experimental study was conducted. The participants were assigned to two groups—namely, Orem’s model and routine care. Although the patients’ self-care knowledge, attitudes, and practices were improved in both groups over the course of 3 days since the initial assessments, there was a greater degree of improvement in the experimental group than that in the control group. However, there were no differences in the improvement of the chest parameters between the two groups. Orem’s model was effective in improving self-care in patients with chest tube.