BIOMARKERS: GDF-15 and risk stratification in atrial fibrillation

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Biomarkers are needed to accurately represent or predict clinical outcomes for optimal management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in clinical practice. Growth differentiation factor-15, a member of the transforming growth factor-β family, has an independent prognostic role for major bleeding and death in patients with AF receiving oral anticoagulation.

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