Metronomics: towards personalized chemotherapy?

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Abstract

Since its inception in 2000, metronomic chemotherapy has undergone major advances as an antiangiogenic therapy. The discovery of the pro-immune properties of chemotherapy and its direct effects on cancer cells has established the intrinsic multitargeted nature of this therapeutic approach. The past 10 years have seen a marked rise in clinical trials of metronomic chemotherapy, and it is increasingly combined in the clinic with conventional treatments, such as maximum-tolerated dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as with novel therapeutic strategies, such as drug repositioning, targeted agents and immunotherapy. We review the latest advances in understanding the complex mechanisms of action of metronomic chemotherapy, and the recently identified factors associated with disease resistance. We comprehensively discuss the latest clinical data obtained from studies performed in both adult and paediatric populations, and highlight ongoing clinical trials. In this Review, we foresee the future developments of metronomic chemotherapy and specifically its potential role in the era of personalized medicine.

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