Pediatric urolithiasis: causative factors, diagnosis and medical management

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Childhood urolithiasis is associated with considerable morbidity and recurrence. Many risk factors—including those metabolic, genetic, anatomic, dietary and environmental in nature—have been identified in children with urinary tract calculi. As pediatric urolithiasis with a metabolic etiology is the most common disease, evaluating the metabolic risk factors in patients is necessary to both effectively treat current stones and prevent recurrence. We discuss causative risk factors of pediatric urolithiasis, as well as the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

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