Multiparametric ultrasonography of the testicles

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Abstract

Ultrasonography is the standard modality to image the scrotum because it can provide information about volume, echo texture, tissue stiffness and functional information that includes macrovascularization and microvascularization. Indeed, ultrasound imaging is indicated in the presentation of acute scrotal pain and swelling to differentiate between testicular torsion, infarction and inflammation, as well as being the modality of choice when an intrascrotal mass is suspected. Advances in ultrasonography technology have produced new innovative techniques for imaging the scrotum, including grey-scale ultrasound, Doppler ultrasonography, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and real-time sonoelastography. Each of these techniques provides information that can be useful when diagnosing diseases and disorders of the testicles. Consequently, the standard approach to accurate diagnosis should rely on multiparametric ultrasonography techniques, rather than just one or two techniques in isolation.

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