Mechanisms of testicular torsion and potential protective agents

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Abstract

Testicular torsion is a urological emergency most commonly seen in adolescence, involving a decrease in blood flow in the testis resulting from torsion of the spermatic cord that can result in gonad injury or even loss if not treated in time. Testicular ischaemia-reperfusion injury represents the principle pathophysiology of testicular torsion, with ischaemia caused by twisting of the spermatic cord, and reperfusion on its subsequent release. Many cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in ischaemia-reperfusion injury following testicular torsion. Studies have investigated the use of pharmacological agents as supportive therapy to surgical repair in order to prevent the adverse effects of testicular torsion. Numerous substances have been proposed as important in the prevention of post-ischaemia-reperfusion testicular injury. A range of chemicals and drugs has been successfully tested in animal models for the purpose of mitigating the dangerous effects of ischaemia-reperfusion in testis torsion.

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