Nocturia is an extremely common condition that has major sequelae for affected patients. Through disruption of sleep, nocturia impairs quality of life and worsens health outcomes, and is associated with a variety of morbidities including diabetes, coronary artery disease, obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and depression. Unsurprisingly, several studies have also linked nocturia with reduced survival. Nocturia is not simply a consequence of lower urinary tract disease; rather, it is a multifactorial disorder that is often a manifestation of an underlying renal or systemic disease. Through the use of the frequency volume chart, clinicians can accurately quantify nocturia and determine its aetiology. Evaluation of quality of life and sleep using simple measures is essential in order to assess the impact of nocturia on a patient. Numerous treatment options for nocturia exist, but most are associated with minor benefit or lack sufficient evidence supporting their use. By systematically analysing an individual's causes of nocturia, clinicians can design appropriate treatment strategies to most effectively treat this condition.