BLADDER DYSFUNCTION IN 2016: New insights into interstitial cystitis and chronic pelvic pain syndromes

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In 2016, immunohistochemical evidence revealed major differences in the inflammatory characteristics of Hunner and non-Hunner interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Evidence has also emerged that an isomer of testosterone, etio-S, might be a urinary biomarker of IC/BPS. Intravesical botulinum toxin injections became a standard treatment of IC/BPS. Furthermore, the International Continence Society has published a new Standard for Terminology for Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes.

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