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Robot assistance has been rapidly adopted by urological surgeons and has become particularly popular for oncological procedures involving the retroperitoneal space. The wide dissemination of robot assistance probably reflects the limited amount of operating space available within the retroperitoneum and the advantages provided by robot-assisted approaches, including 3D imaging, wristed instrumentation and the shorter learning curve compared with that associated with the equivalent laparoscopic techniques. Surgical procedures that have traditionally been performed using an open or laparoscopic approach, such as partial nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, nephroureterectomy and adrenalectomy, are now often being performed using robot assistance. The frontiers of robot-assisted retroperitoneal oncological surgery are constantly expanding, with an emphasis on maintaining oncological and functional outcomes, while minimizing the level of surgical invasiveness.