Undertaking a health-related course at university can facilitate an awareness of health-promoting lifestyles. We carried out a descriptive and cross-sectional study with 1616 university students in Istanbul, Turkey. Students from the nursing schools were compared to those from the schools of social sciences using a Turkish version of the Health-promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) II after a validation study. The nursing students had more positive health-promoting lifestyles than those of the non-nursing students. Furthermore, fourth-year nursing students had higher scores in most of the subscales of the HPLP II than did the students from the lower years; conversely, the fourth-year non-nursing students had lower scores. The sociodemographic variables, self-perceived health status, relations with family and friends, and self-perceived academic performance were associated with the HPLP. The implications are discussed for the curricula and on-campus facilities that focus on health promotion activities.