This study assessed a targeted continuing osteoporosis educational program and investigated awareness and prevention of osteoporosis in Chinese female pre-internship nurse students. A quasi-experimental study was conducted. The program was presented to 256 nurse students. The baseline knowledge score of the nurse students was low (9.78 ± 3.13). They had inadequate osteoporosis health beliefs, self-efficacy and related behaviors. The educational program significantly augmented osteoporosis knowledge (Student's paired t = −13.42, P < 0.001), total osteoporosis health beliefs (Student's paired t = −4.46, P < 0.001), and the subscale (P < 0.001) except for the perceived barriers to exercising and calcium intake. Participants showed a significant increase in self-efficacy (Student's paired t = −6.45, P < 0.001) post intervention. Those who completed the program were better prepared to prevent and manage osteoporosis. Additionally, nurse students became more concerned about bone health of family members, subjects and themselves because of attending the program. Results of this study reinforce the need for osteoporosis-related continuing education in nurse students before clinical internship.