This study is a randomized, controlled trial to examine the effect of the health contract intervention, based on the goal attainment theory, on the self-care behavior and physiological indices of renal dialysis patients in Korea. The experimental group (n = 21) underwent health contract intervention for 4 weeks, while the control group (n = 22) received routine care. The data were collected using questionnaires and measurement of physiological indices and analyzed using the SPSS WIN 12.0 program. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Total score of self-care behavior (P = 0.011) and individual scores for behaviors, such as diet (P = 0.017), exercise and rest (P = 0.001), and blood pressure and body weight (P = 0.006) were higher in the experimental group. Serum potassium concentration and mean weight gain between dialysis sessions were significantly low in the experimental group (P = 0.002, P = 0.017). Therefore, the health contract intervention based on the goal attainment theory proved effective in improving self-care behavior and physiological indices (K, P, mean weight gain) in renal dialysis patients in Korea.