Electrolyte series: Magnesium

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Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation after potassium.1 It is a cofactor in hundreds of metabolic reactions in the body.2 Magnesium is required for cellular energy metabolism, functioning of the sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphatase pump, membrane stabilization, nerve conduction, and ion transport. It is also essential for every step related to replication and transcription of DNA, and for translation of messenger RNA.2 This article reviews the regulation of magnesium homeostasis, and the causes, clinical manifestations, and general management of hypermagnesemia and hypomagnesemia in adults.

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